Tuesday, June 13, 2023

Unit: 1. Current Affairs & Issues || Grade: 10, English || Reading I and Writing I

Unit-1 Current Affairs & Issues

Reading I

How Driverless Cars Will Change Our World

It's late at night in the Metro area of Phoenix, Arizona. Under the artificial glare of street lamps, a car can be seen slowly approaching. Active sensors on the vehicle radiate a low hum. A green and blue 'W' glows from the windscreen, giving off just enough light to see inside – to a completely empty driver seat.

The wheel navigates the curb steadily, parking as an arrival notification pings on the phone of the person waiting for it. When they open the door to climb inside, a voice greets them over the vehicle's sound system. "Good evening, this car is all yours – with no one upfront," it says.

This is a Waymo One robotaxi, hailed just 10 minutes ago using an app. The open use of this service to the public, slowly expanding across the US, is one of the many developments signalling that driverless technology is truly becoming a part of our lives.

The promise of driverless technology has long been enticing. It has the potential to transform our experience of commuting and long journeys, take people out of high-risk working environments and streamline our industries. It's key to helping us build the cities of the future, where our reliance and relationship with cars are redefined – lowering carbon emissions and paving the way for more sustainable ways of living. And it could make our travel safer. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 1.3 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes. "We want safer roads and less fatalities. Automation ultimately could provide that," says Camilla Fowler, head of automated transport for the UK's Transport Research Laboratory (TRL).

But in order for driverless technology to become mainstream, much still needs to change. "Driverless vehicles should be a very calm and serene way of getting from A to B. But not every human driver around it will be behaving in that way," says David Hynd, chief scientist for safety and investigations at TRL.

"It's got to be able to cope with human drivers speeding, for instance, or breaking the rules of the road." And that's not the only challenge. There's regulation, rethinking the highway code, public perception, improving the infrastructure of our streets, towns, cities, and the big question of ultimate liability for road accidents. "The whole insurance industry is looking into how they're going to deal with that change from a person being responsible and in charge to the vehicle doing that," says Richard Jinks, vice president of commercial at Oxfordshire-based driverless vehicle software company Oxbotica, which has been testing its technology in cars and delivery vehicles at several locations across the UK and Europe.

The ultimate vision experts are working towards is of completely driverless vehicles, both within industry, wider transport networks, and personal-use cars, that can be deployed and used anywhere and everywhere around the world.

But with all these hurdles in place, what exactly does the next 10 years have in store for autonomous vehicles?

Two years from now

The biggest hurdle for those in the driverless technology industry is how to get the cars to operate safely and effectively in complex and unpredictable human environments. Cracking this part of the puzzle will be the major focus of the next two years.

At the Mcity Test Facility at the University of Michigan, experts are addressing this. The world's first purpose-built testing ground for autonomous vehicles, it's a mini-town of sorts, made up of 16 acres of road and traffic infrastructure. It includes traffic signals and signs, underpasses, building facades, tree cover, home and garage exteriors for testing delivery and ride-hailing, and different terrains such as road, pedestrian walkways, railway tracks, and road markings which the vehicles must navigate. It's here that experts test scenarios that even the most experienced of drivers may be pressed to handle, from children playing in the street to two cars trying to merge on a junction at the same time.


Metro /ˈmɛtroʊ/ - A rapid transit system, also known as a subway or underground, used for transportation in urban areas.

Artificial /ɑrˈtɪfɪʃl/ - Made or produced by human skill or labor rather than by natural processes; not genuine or natural.

Glare /ɡlɛr/ - A harsh, bright, dazzling light, often caused by reflection.

Radiate /ˈreɪdiˌeɪt/ - Emit energy, light, or heat in the form of rays or waves; to spread out from a central point.

Windscreen /ˈwɪndˌskrin/ - A transparent screen located at the front of a vehicle, designed to protect passengers from wind and debris.

Driver seat /ˈdraɪvər sit/ - The seat in a vehicle where the person who is driving sits.

Navigates /ˈnævəɡeɪts/ - To plan and direct the course of a vehicle or vessel.

Arrival notification /əˈraɪvəl ˌnoʊtəfɪˈkeɪʃən/ - A message or alert notifying someone that a person or vehicle has arrived at a destination.

Robotaxi /ˈroʊbəʊtæksi/ - A type of autonomous vehicle that is designed to operate as a taxi or ride-hailing service without a human driver.

Hailed /heɪld/ - To signal or call out to a vehicle, especially a taxi or ride-hailing service, in order to request a ride.

Enticing /ɪnˈtaɪsɪŋ/ - Attractive or tempting; likely to lure or attract someone.

Transform /trænsˈfɔrm/ - To change the form, appearance, or nature of something.

Commuting /kəˈmjuːtɪŋ/ - The act of traveling to and from work or school on a regular basis.

High-risk /haɪ rɪsk/ - Associated with a greater than average risk or danger.

Streamline /ˈstriːmˌlaɪn/ - To make more efficient or organized by simplifying or eliminating unnecessary steps or processes.

Industries /ˈɪndəstriːz/ - A category of business activity, typically involving the manufacture or production of goods or services.

Reliance /rɪˈlaɪəns/ - Dependence on or trust in something or someone.

Redefined /riːdɪˈfaɪnd/ - To redefine something means to give it a new and different meaning or interpretation.

Emissions /ɪˈmɪʃənz/ - The production and discharge of something, especially gases or radiation.

Sustainable /səˈsteɪnəbl/ - Capable of being maintained or continued without depleting natural resources or causing significant environmental damage.

Safer /ˈseɪfər/ - Free from harm, danger, or risk.

World Health Organization /wɜrld hɛlθ ˌɔrgənəˈzeɪʃən/ - An international organization that works to promote public health around the world.

Estimates /ˈɛstəmeɪts/ - A rough calculation or approximation of the value, amount, or extent of something.

Fatalities /fəˈtælətiz/ - Deaths caused by accidents


A. The following words have two different meanings.

Match each word with the meaning used in the context of the text above.

a. glare - ii. an intense blinding light

b. curb - i. a stone edging to a pavement or raised path

c. hail - i. to call somebody in order to attract their attention

d. commute - ii. to travel regularly between workplace and home

e. serene - i. calm and peaceful

f. liability - ii. the state of being legally responsible for something

g. deploy - ii. to use something effectively

h. autonomous - i. a vehicle that has the technology to drive itself

i. perception - ii. the ability to understand the true nature of something

B. Choose the correct alternatives to complete the sentences below.

a. One of the features of automated cars is that.....

i. they wait for the passengers.

ii. they approach slowly.

iii. They have their own voice to welcome people into them....

b. Driverless technology is being widely used particularly in .....

i. the USA ii. the UK iii. the UAE...

c. The positive impact of such technology on the environment is .....

i. it prevents road accidents.

ii. it paves the way to sustainable life.

ii. it reduces carbon production....

d. One of the problems with driverless technology is that .....

i. it cannot deal with traffic system.

ii. it cannot deal with human drivers.

iii. it cannot cope with other cars....

e. One of the biggest challenges of automated cars is .....

i. its safety from the human environment

ii. human safety from it

iii. its durability in the human environment...

f. The automated technology developed so far is .....

i. completely trustworthy

ii. partly trustworthy

iii. not trustworthy at all...

C. Answer the following questions.

a. Mention any three features of the driverless car.

Answer: Three features of the driverless car mentioned in the text are:

i. It can sense the surrounding environment through sensors and cameras.

ii. It can make decisions on its own based on the data it collects.

iii. It can communicate with other vehicles and infrastructure to optimize driving.

b. Describe the benefits of driverless technology.

Answer: Driverless technology offers several benefits:

1.    Improved road safety by reducing human error.

2.    Increased efficiency and traffic flow, reducing congestion.

3.    Enhanced accessibility and mobility for individuals who cannot drive.

4.    Environmental benefits through optimized fuel consumption and reduced emissions.

5.    Increased productivity and comfort for passengers.

6.    Improved traffic safety infrastructure.

7.    Positive economic impact through job creation and cost savings.

These benefits contribute to safer, more efficient, and sustainable transportation systems.

c. What, according to Camilla Fowler, is the special advantage of automated vehicles?

Answer: According to Camilla Fowler, the special advantage of automated vehicles is that they have the potential to reduce the number of deaths and injuries caused by road accidents.

d. What are the problems with driverless vehicles in David Hynd's view?

Answer: In David Hynd's view, the problems with driverless vehicles include:

- The technology is not yet advanced enough to handle all situations, such as adverse weather conditions or unexpected obstacles.

- There is a lack of public trust in the technology, which may lead to resistance to its implementation.

- The potential for job loss in the transportation industry.

e. What are scientists doing to make driverless technology safer?

Answer: Scientists are working to make driverless technology safer by improving the sensors and algorithms used by the vehicles, as well as conducting extensive testing to ensure their reliability and safety.

f. Do you think driverless technology is safer than human-controlled driving? Why?

Answer: The safety of driverless technology compared to human-controlled driving is a topic of debate. While the technology has the potential to reduce accidents caused by human error, it is not foolproof and can still encounter unexpected situations that it may need help to handle. Additionally, public trust in the technology is still developing, and until widespread adoption occurs, it may be difficult to determine its overall safety compared to human-controlled driving.

D. Think of any three other areas where artificial intelligence (Al) has been used. What are the benefits of using Al in these areas? Share your ideas with the class.

Answer: Three other areas where artificial intelligence (AI) has been used:

1.    Healthcare: Artificial intelligence has made significant advancements in the healthcare sector. It has been employed in various areas such as medical imaging, drug discovery, personalized medicine, and patient monitoring. AI algorithms can analyze medical images like X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs, assisting radiologists in detecting anomalies and providing more accurate diagnoses. In drug discovery, AI can accelerate the process by analyzing vast amounts of data to identify potential drug candidates and predict their efficacy. Personalized medicine utilizes AI to analyze patient data and genetic information to tailor treatments and medications to individual patients. AI-powered monitoring systems can continuously track patient vitals, detect anomalies, and alert healthcare providers in real-time. The benefits of AI in healthcare include improved accuracy in diagnosis, faster drug discovery, personalized treatment plans, and enhanced patient monitoring, leading to better healthcare outcomes and more efficient healthcare delivery.

2.    Transportation and Logistics: Artificial intelligence has revolutionized the transportation and logistics industry. In the field of autonomous vehicles, AI algorithms enable self-driving cars and trucks to navigate roads, make real-time decisions, and avoid accidents. AI also optimizes traffic management systems by analyzing real-time traffic data and adjusting signal timings to improve traffic flow. In logistics, AI algorithms optimize route planning and delivery scheduling, considering factors such as traffic, weather conditions, and package sizes, to enhance efficiency and reduce costs. Additionally, AI-powered predictive maintenance systems can monitor the health of vehicles and machinery, detecting potential failures before they occur, reducing downtime, and optimizing maintenance schedules. The benefits of AI in transportation and logistics include improved road safety, reduced congestion, enhanced operational efficiency, and cost savings.

3.    Finance and Banking: Artificial intelligence has had a significant impact on the finance and banking sector. AI algorithms are employed for various applications, including fraud detection, risk assessment, trading, and customer service. AI-powered fraud detection systems can analyze vast amounts of transaction data, identify patterns, and detect anomalies in real-time, helping prevent fraudulent activities. Risk assessment models powered by AI can analyze creditworthiness, market trends, and other relevant factors to make more accurate predictions and decisions. AI algorithms are also utilized in algorithmic trading, where they can analyze market data, identify trends, and execute trades at high speeds. In customer service, AI-powered chatbots and virtual assistants provide personalized and efficient support, answering queries and resolving issues. The benefits of AI in finance and banking include improved fraud detection, more accurate risk assessment, enhanced trading capabilities, and enhanced customer experience through faster and more effective customer service.

Overall, artificial intelligence brings numerous benefits to various sectors, including healthcare, transportation and logistics, and finance and banking. It improves decision-making, enhances efficiency, reduces costs, and enables the development of innovative solutions that can significantly impact these industries and improve outcomes for businesses and individuals alike.

Grammar I

A. Match the following statements with the correct reported speech and notice how the statements are changed.

a. Khushi said, "I go to school every day by bus."- Khusi said that she went to school every day by bus.

b. Karma said to me, "1 am sorry for coming late." - Karma apologised for coming late.

c. Susan says, "I will leave for Bhanu next week."- Susan says that she will eave for Bhanu the following.

d. Tshering said, " I will surely meet you this Saturday." - Tshering promised me to meet that Saturday.

e. "The bus leaves at six," said the agent.- The agent informed us that the bus left at six.

f. "I have already finished my project work," said She.- She said that she had alreadv finished her project work.

g. "I work from home these days," , said Yanjal.- Yanjal said that he worked from house those days.

B. Complete the following sentences with the correct reporting verbs.

[advised, admitted, warned, offered, thanked, agreed, informed, agreed, apologised, promised]

a. "I broke the mirror." He admitted that he had broken the mirror.

b. "I'd go and see a doctor if I were you," Pemba advised me to see a doctor.

c. "I will send you out if you make a noise again," said the librarian. The librarian warned me not to make a noise again.

d. "I can come and help you plant rice," said Raman. Raman offered to help me plant rice.

e. "The classes start from next week," said the assistant. The assistant informed us that the classes start from the following week.

f. Sonam said to me, "Thank you so much for your help." Sonam thanked me for my help.

g. "OK, I will return your money by Saturday," said Prakriti. Prakriti promised to return my money by Saturday.

h. "I will really work hard and score good grades," said Anupam. Anupam agreed to work hard and get good grades.

i. "I am sorry for coming late," said the speaker. The speaker apologised for coming late.

Writing I

The use of AI in the technology is not only making peoples lives eacier but bringing new challenges. Write a newspaper article about the challenges brought by the advancement of AI in technology.

Title: Unveiling the Challenges of AI Advancements in Technology: Navigating the Path of Innovation

Subtitle: Balancing Progress and Responsibility in an AI-Driven World

Date: [Current Date]

Byline: [Your Name]

[City], [Country] - As Artificial Intelligence (AI) continues to revolutionize technology and reshape various industries, it is important to recognize the challenges accompanying these advancements. While AI has undoubtedly brought convenience and efficiency to people's lives, it has also introduced a host of complex challenges that society must navigate to harness its full potential responsibly.

AI, powered by sophisticated algorithms and immense computing capabilities, has permeated sectors like healthcare, finance, transportation, and more. However, as this cutting-edge technology evolves, several challenges have surfaced, demanding our attention and proactive solutions.

Ethical Dilemmas: The emergence of AI has sparked profound ethical questions. Autonomous systems that make decisions with limited human intervention raise concerns about the transparency and accountability of those decisions. Ethical dilemmas arise in scenarios where AI must make choices impacting human lives, such as self-driving cars deciding between different collision outcomes. Determining ethical frameworks and guidelines that govern AI decision-making is crucial to ensure its alignment with human values and protect against potential harm.

Data Bias and Privacy Concerns: AI algorithms rely on vast amounts of data to learn and make accurate predictions. However, if this data is biased or incomplete, it can perpetuate societal inequalities or discriminate against certain groups. For instance, biased training data can result in biased decision-making in areas like hiring, lending, or criminal justice. Safeguarding data privacy is another critical challenge. As AI systems process massive amounts of personal data, there is a need to establish robust regulations and frameworks to protect individuals' privacy rights, prevent misuse, and ensure transparency in data handling practices.

Job Displacement and Economic Disparity: AI automation presents the prospect of transforming the job landscape, leading to potential job displacement and economic disparities. While AI can streamline processes and boost productivity, it may also render certain job roles obsolete, necessitating reskilling or upskilling of the workforce. Ensuring a just transition and providing opportunities for reemployment are essential to address the potential socioeconomic impact of AI-driven automation.

Cybersecurity and Misuse: The growing dependence on AI and the interconnectedness of systems introduce new vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats. As AI-powered technologies become integral to critical infrastructure and decision-making processes, safeguarding against cyberattacks and ensuring the integrity and reliability of AI systems becomes paramount. There is also the concern of malicious actors exploiting AI for nefarious purposes, such as deepfakes or AI-driven cyber warfare. Developing robust security measures and promoting ethical AI usage is essential to mitigate these risks.

Transparency and Explainability: AI models, particularly those utilizing deep learning algorithms, can often be seen as "black boxes" due to their complex inner workings. Lack of transparency and explainability hampers understanding and trust in AI systems. Ensuring that AI algorithms and decision-making processes are transparent and explainable is vital for accountability, allowing users to comprehend the reasoning behind AI-generated outcomes.

Addressing these challenges requires a multi-stakeholder approach. Governments, industry leaders, researchers, and policymakers must collaborate to establish ethical standards, regulatory frameworks, and guidelines that govern AI development and usage. Ensuring diversity and inclusivity in AI design teams can help mitigate biases. Investment in education and training programs can equip individuals with the skills necessary to adapt to the changing job market. Cybersecurity measures need continuous enhancement, and public discourse should foster awareness and responsible AI deployment.

As AI continues to push the boundaries of technological innovation, it is imperative to embrace these challenges as opportunities for growth. By proactively addressing ethical, societal, and economic concerns


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